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Tag Archives: embedded system

Interface 4×4 Matrix Keypad With Microcontroller

4x4 matrix keypad featured image

In this post we will discuss logic and interface of a matrix keypad (4×4 for this post) with microcontroller to reduce the number of port pins required to read a certain number of inputs (digital). The same logic applies to any matrix keypad of order NxN. Where, N is the order of the matrix. Why Matrix Keypad? Typically one port pin is required to read a digital input into the controller. When there are a lot of digital input that has …

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Interface – LCD in 4 bit Mode: Part 3

LCD in 4 bit mode pin connection

Embedded applications are always developed on controllers whose resources are almost fully used in order to cut the cost of the product. This is done especially in applications that do not need any future expansions or a firmware updates. They are Make-it and Forget-it kind of applications. Most of the time, either the memory or the available pins are in demand. In some cases both memory and pin count are less. The Character LCD in 8 bit mode uses 8 …

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Programming LCD in 8 bit mode – Part -2

LCD interface setup

This post documents the steps involved in interfacing the LCD in 8 bit mode with a microcontroller. It belongs to a series of 4 posts. If you landed here straight from a search engine here is an index to help you navigate. LCD Module Basic Theory. (LCD Controllers, CG&DD RAM, PIN description,Timing Diagram, Commands) Programming LCDs in 8 bit mode. (programming pic18f4520 in C with C18 compiler under 8 bit mode) Programming LCDs in 4 bit mode. (programming pic18f4520 in C with C18 compiler under 4 bit mode) Creating Custom Characters …

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Interfacing LCD Module with Microcontroller: Part -1

lcd interface

The LCD module interface with a microcontroller is simple and it is a primitive means of adding a visual appeal to your embedded application. There are two basic types of LCD modules in the market they are, Character LCD and Graphics LCD. Character LCD’s are the some of the cheapest means LCD displays available today. This post is first of a series of four posts that walks through entire process of interfacing an LCD module with a (any) microcontroller with …

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Workaround for “SD Card Initialization Failed!” in Arduino

Arduino sd card

I was working on a project that involved the use of a SD (Secure Digital) card to log data into a text file. I chose Arduino as it  had a vary stable FAT (File Allocation Table) library. I had an Arduino Mega at my disposal and built a resistive network to step down the logic levels of the Arduino SPI bus at 5v to the SD card’s at 3v3. I was getting voltage levels that were withing the absolute maximum …

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Need for Clock Line in Digital Communication

clock pulse

   What is the need for a clock line in digital communication protocols? This was the question that was posted on a Facebook page. I was surprised to see no one had posted a response. Probably they felt that the question was below standard, lame, stupid or on the worst case they did NOT know it them self! That thought was disturbing. This is a concept that everyone (well, not exactly everyone) should be aware of in not in detail …

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Timer / Counter Module – A Controller Independent Guide


In this post I intend to provide a standalone, controller independent, Guide to Timer / Counter Module in Microcontrollers. The concepts explained are not associated with any one particular controller which might not be useful for all readers. To an extent this is an independent post but little exposure to Interrupts and how they work is a prerequisite, which may not be within the scope of this post. But otherwise this post should have everything you need to know about …

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Interfacing RTC with Microcontroller


Have you ever wondered how your PC and phones keep track of time even when the device is turned OFF? Well there is a Real Time Clock (RTC) that is kept powered even is the device is turned OFF. Once the device is turned ON and connected to the internet the device connects to a NTP server (Network Time Protocol) and updates the time and date. This post is intended to give a little insight over these RTCs and their interface with mid-range 8-bit …

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DIY wireless Keyboard (fun in making things yourself)


I have a TVS eGold mechanical Keyboard. I was looking at some websites that sold wireless keyboard and soon found out that they were all membrane type. I have been using the mechanical one for quiet some time now and love it so much that I can’t possibly revert back to the membrane even if were wireless. Thats when I got the Idea to convert my mechanical wired-keyboard into a wireless one a ‘DIY wireless keyboard’. I was reading about the PS2 interface and …

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Getting started with Embedded Systems

embedded system

Hey everyone, I have planned to document all the small electronics projects that I do in my free time so that it would be of some use to all the beginners of the same interest as mine. I may not be regular in posting new stuffs, but I will try my level the best to post the most optimized content of what I have  done. When I was a beginner, I found many blogs really useful, which actually made my learning curve smooth. I am no …

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